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Change the voice

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How to Change the voice

1) He eats mangoes.

He  

—    does the action of eating.

—    doer of the action

—    active subject

—    active voice


2) Mangoes are eaten by him.

Mangoes

—   object becomes subject

—   this new subject is passive

—   passive sentence


Rules for changing active voice to passive voice —

1) Interchange the subject and object.

2) Take suitable auxiliary verb of ‘to be or to have’ according to new subject and tense.

3) Write past participle of main verb.

4) Write the subject of given sentence after ‘by’.

 5) If subject of given sentence is a pronoun, change it in passive sentence as follows-

Sr.No.Active voicePassive voice
1I(by) me
2We(by) us
3You(by) you
4He(by) him
5She(by) her
6It(by) it
7They(by) them
8Ram(by) Ram

6) Place the articles, adjectives, prepositions etc. near to that noun or verb along with they come in given sentence.

e.g. The boy looked at a bird.

Ans- A bird was looked at by the boy.


7) If the given sentence has a pronoun object of accusative case, in the passive sentence it turns into nominative case.

e.g. I call him.

Ans- He is called by me.


8) In passive sentence a preposition ‘by’ is used before the subject of given sentence, it is called ‘adjunct’ and that subject is called ‘agent’. When such agent is insignificant, the construction by + Subject is omitted.

e.g. My pen is stolen.


9)  The subjects like one, somebody, everyone, nobody, anybody, someone, people, you etc. are not mostly written with by in passive voice.

e.g. He is supported properly (by everyone).


10) Agreement of subject and auxiliary verb for passive voice –  

Sr.No.SubjectAuxiliary verb-: to be & to have
1IAm, was, shallhave, had
2He, She, ItIs, was, willhas, had
3You, TheyAre, were, willhave, had
4WeAre, were, willhave, had

11) Tense and auxiliary verb agreement for passive voice –
      

Sr.No.TenseAuxiliary verb
1Simple present tenseAm, is, are
2Simple past tenseWas, were
3Simple future tenseWill be, shall be
4Present continuous tenseAm, is, are + being
5Past continuous tenseWas, were + being
6Present perfect tenseHave, has + been
7Past perfect tenseHad + been
8Future perfect tenseWill have, shall have + been
9Modal auxiliaryModal auxiliary + be

(A) Simple Tense

1) Simple present tense –

Form – Obj + am, is, are + p.p.of main V + by + Sub.

e.g.

1) He plays cricket.

Ans- Cricket is played by him.

2) People generally assume that money brings happiness.

Ans- Money brings happiness is generally assumed by people.

3) They write a letter.

Ans-  A letter is written by them.

4) I call her to dance.

Ans- She is called to dance by me.


2) Simple past tense-

Form – Obj + was, were + p.p.of main V + by + Sub

e.g.

1) He played cricket.

Ans- Cricket was played by him.

2) My friend brought some books from the stall.

Ans- Some books from the stall were brought by my friend.

3) They wrote a letter.

Ans- A letter was written by them.

4) I called her to dance.

Ans-She was called to dance by me.


3) Simple future tense-

Form – Obj + will be, shall be + p.p.of main V + by + Sub

e.g.

1) He will play cricket.

Ans- Cricket will be played by him.

2) My friend will bring some books from the stall.

Ans- Some books from the stall will be brought by my friend.

3) They will write a letter.

Ans- A letter will be written by them.

4) She will call me to dance.

Ans-I shall be called to dance by her.


B) Continuous tense-

1) Present continuous tense-

Form – Obj + am, is, are + being + p.p.of main V + by + Sub

e.g.

1) He is playing cricket.

Ans- Cricket is being played by him.

2) My friend is bringing some books from the stall.

Ans- Some books from the stall are being brought by my friend.

3) They are writing a letter.

Ans- A letter is being written by them.

4) She is calling me to dance.

Ans-I am being called to dance by her.


2) Past continuous tense-

Form – Obj + was, were + being + p.p.of main V + by + Sub

e.g.

1) He was playing cricket.

Ans- Cricket was being played by him.

2) My friend was bringing some books from the stall.

Ans- Some books from the stall were being brought by my friend.

3) They were writing a letter.

Ans- A letter was being written by them.

4) She was calling me to dance.

Ans-I was being called to dance by her.

5) Darasing and his brother were carrying the load.

Ans- The load was being carried by Darasing and his brother.


C) Perfect tense-

1) Present perfect tense-

Form – Obj + have, has + been + p.p.of main V + by + Sub

e.g.

1) He has played cricket.

Ans- Cricket has been played by him.

2) My friend has brought some books from the stall.

Ans- Some books from the stall has been brought by my friend.

3) They have written a letter.

Ans- A letter has been written by them.

4) She has called me to dance.

Ans-I have been called to dance by her.

5) I have accepted the proposal.

Ans- The proposal has been accepted by me.


2) Past perfect tense-

Form – Obj + had + been + p.p.of main V + by +  Sub

e.g.

1) He had played cricket.

Ans- Cricket had been played by him.

2) My friend had brought some books from the stall.

Ans- Some books from the stall had been brought by my friend.

3) They had written a letter.

Ans- A letter had been written by them.

4) She had called me to dance.

Ans-I had been called to dance by her.


3) Future perfect tense-

Form – Obj + will, shall + have + been + p.p.of main V + by + Sub

e.g.

1) He will have played cricket.

Ans- Cricket will have been played by him.

2) My friend will have brought some books from the stall.

Ans- Some books from the stall will have been brought by my friend.

3) They will have written a letter.

Ans- A letter will have been written by them.

4) She will have called me to dance.

Ans-I shall have been called to dance by her.

5) Ramu will have killed a cat.

Ans- A cat will have been killed by Ramu.


D) Modal Auxiliary-

Can, could, should, must, may, ought to, would, might, will, shall etc.

Form- Obj + modal auxiliary + be + p.p. of main V + by + Sub

e.g.

1) He can play cricket.

Ans- Cricket can be played by him.

2) The body cannot perform any of its functions.

Ans- Any of its functions cannot be performed by the body.

3) We should carry the load.

Ans- The load should be carried by us.

4) Rahul must sing a song.

Ans- A song must be sung by Rahul.

5) The plane may bring the dead bodies.

Ans- The dead bodies may be brought by the plane.


G) Direct object and indirect object-

    (a) Direct object gets when we ask question ‘What’ to the verb.

    (b) Indirect object gets when we ask question ‘Whom’ to the verb.

Form

      D.O. + Auxiliary verb + P.P.of Main V + to + I.O. + by + Sub.

      I.O. + Auxiliary verb + P.P.of Main V + D.O. + by + Sub.

e.g.

1) They tell us a story.

Ans- A story is told to us by them.

Ans- We are told a story by them.

2) Rani gave me a book.

Ans- A book was given to me by Rani.

Ans- I was given a book by Rani.

3) Prof. Chavan teaches us English.

Ans- English is taught to us by Prof. Chavan.

Ans- We are taught English by Prof. Chavan.

4) The clerk brings her an ordinary exercise book.

Ans- An ordinary exercise book is brought to her by the clerk.

Ans- She is brought an ordinary exercise book by the clerk.

5) He sends me a message.

Ans- A message is sent to me by him.

Ans- I am sent a message by him.

6) They are making her a fool.

Ans- A fool is being made to her by them.

Ans- She is being made her by them.

7) Raju has described her the incident.

Ans- The incident has been described to her by Raju.

Ans- She has been described the incident by Raju.

8) I pay them one rupee.

Ans- One rupee is paid to them by me.

Ans- They are paid one rupee by me.


H) Sentence having request-

Form- You are requested to + V + Obj.

e.g.

1) Please open the door.

Ans- You are requested to open the door.

2) Please come in.

Ans- You are requested to come in.

3) Please accept the proposal.

Ans- You are requested to accept the proposal.


I) Impertive Sentences-

Form- Let + Obj. + be + P.P. of V.

e.g.

1) Attack the enemy.

Ans- Let the enemy be attacked

2) Kill him.

Ans- Let him be killed.

3) Salute the flag.

Ans- Let the flag be saluted.

4) Open the door.

Ans- Let the door be opened.

5)   Close the window.

  Ans- Let the window be closed.


J) Sentence beginning with ‘Let’- 

From- Let + Obj + P.P.of Main V + by + pronoun.

e.g.

1) Let me count the money.

Ans- Let the money be counted by me.

2) Let us arrange a picnic.

Ans- Let a picnic be arranged by us.

3) Let them bring the news.

Ans- Let the news be brought by them.


K) Interrogative sentences- 

Rules-

1) For question of ‘Who’, write ‘By whom’ in passive question.

2) For questions of ‘what, when, where, why, how, use the same words to begin the passive question.

3) For questions of ‘Do and Does’, use ‘am, is, are’ in passive question and for question of ‘Did’, use ‘was, were’.

4) Remove wh- world. Make the given question as assertive sentence. Change its voice.

5) Interchange subject and auxiliary verb. Write wh- word in the beginning.

e.g.

1) Who killed the snake?

Ans- By whom was the snake killed?

2) Who carry the box?

Ans- By whom is the box carried?

3) Where did you keep my pen?

Ans- Where was my pen kept by you?

4) Why did he tell me?

Ans- Why was I told by him?

5) When will they call him?

Ans- When will he be called by them?

6) Why have you disturbed her?

Ans- Why she has been disturbed by you?

7) Does he want my exercise book?

Ans- Is my exercise book wanted by you?

8) Did he call all the officers?

Ans- Were all officers called by him?

9) Has Seeta written the letter?

Ans- Has the letter been written by Seeta?

10) Are you singing a poem?

Ans- Is a poem being sung by you?

11) Will they cook our food?

Ans- Will our food be cooked by them?


Adjunct ‘by’-

In passive voice before subject the preposition ‘by’ is used. It is called adjunct but sometimes instead of adjunct ‘by’ other meaningful words are also used.

 e.g.

1) I know him well.

Ans- He is known well to me.

2) The sight shocked me.

Ans- I was shocked at the sight.

3) Smoke filled the hut.

Ans- The hut was filled with smoke.


Changing passive voice to active voice-

Rules-

1) Interchange the subject and object. 

2) If ‘by + subject’ is not given, take any suitable ‘noun or pronoun’ as subject.

3) According to the auxiliary verb decide the tense of the sentence.

e.g. 

is- present tense,

was- past tense,

been – perfect tense,

being- continuous tense.

4) Remove by, be, been, being from the sentence.

5) Remove auxiliary verb in simple tense sentences if necessary.  

e.g.

1) Cricket is played by him.

Ans- He play cricket.

2) She is called by me.

Ans- I call her.

3) They called me.

Ans- I was killed by them.

4) Cats were killed by her.

Ans- She called cats.

5) A letter will be written by him.

Ans- He will write a letter.

6) A ball is being caught by Raju.

Ans- Raju is catching a ball.

7) They were being called by her.

Ans- She was calling them.

8) A poem has been written by me.

Ans- I have written a poem.

9) Heavy load has been carried by her.

Ans-She has carried heavy load.

10) A letter can be written by her.

Ans- She can write a letter.

11) News must be brought by them.

Ans- They must bring news.

12) The jeep was parked in our house.

Ans- They parked the jeep in our house.


See more Grammar Topics:

Spot the Error (Click here)

Change the Degree (Click Here)

Use: If—-not / Unless (Click Here)

Uses of Tenses (Click Here)

Frame a wh- question (Click Here)


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2 COMMENTS

  1. Thank you sirji myself mr.Gambhir Patil assistant teacher at M .V.Andhari I’m B.A.(English)B.P.Ed. has been teaching English from last 15 years Grammar topics explained by you are very useful

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